As of May 7, , the U. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit ruled that the interpretation of Section of the Patriot Act was wrong and that the NSA program that has been collecting Americans' phone records in bulk is illegal. This ruling "is the first time a higher-level court in the regular judicial system has reviewed the N. Under the Upstream program, the NSA paid telecommunications companies between 9 and 95 million dollars in order to collect data from them.
In a declassified document it was revealed that 17, phone lines were on an improperly permitted "alert list" from to in breach of compliance, which tagged these phone lines for daily monitoring. Domestically, the NSA has been proven to collect and store metadata records of phone calls,  including over million US Verizon subscribers ,  as well as intercept vast amounts of communications via the internet Upstream.
Federal agents are then instructed to "recreate" the investigative trail via parallel construction. The NSA also spies on influential Muslims to obtain information that could be used to discredit them, such as their use of pornography. The targets, both domestic and abroad, are not suspected of any crime but hold religious or political views deemed "radical" by the NSA. The newspaper said it had examined documents including emails, text messages, and online accounts that support the claim. Despite White House claims that these programs have congressional oversight, many members of Congress were unaware of the existence of these NSA programs or the secret interpretation of the Patriot Act, and have consistently been denied access to basic information about them.
The NSA has "generally disregarded the special rules for disseminating United States person information" by illegally sharing its intercepts with other law enforcement agencies. Legal opinions on the NSA's bulk collection program have differed.
In mid-December , U. District Judge Richard Leon ruled that the "almost-Orwellian" program likely violates the Constitution, and wrote, "I cannot imagine a more 'indiscriminate' and 'arbitrary invasion' than this systematic and high-tech collection and retention of personal data on virtually every single citizen for purposes of querying and analyzing it without prior judicial approval.
Surely, such a program infringes on 'that degree of privacy' that the Founders enshrined in the Fourth Amendment. Indeed, I have little doubt that the author of our Constitution, James Madison, who cautioned us to beware 'the abridgement of freedom of the people by gradual and silent encroachments by those in power,' would be aghast.
Later that month, U. District Judge William Pauley ruled that the NSA's collection of telephone records is legal and valuable in the fight against terrorism. There are cases where they could inadvertently perhaps collect, but not wittingly. Clapper, in response to criticism, said, "I responded in what I thought was the most truthful, or least untruthful manner.
NSA whistler-blower Edward Snowden additionally revealed the existence of XKeyscore , a top secret NSA program that allows the agency to search vast databases of "the metadata as well as the content of emails and other internet activity, such as browser history," with capability to search by "name, telephone number, IP address, keywords, the language in which the internet activity was conducted or the type of browser used.
Regarding the necessity of these NSA programs, Alexander stated on June 27 that the NSA's bulk phone and Internet intercepts had been instrumental in preventing 54 terrorist "events", including 13 in the US, and in all but one of these cases had provided the initial tip to "unravel the threat stream". An October United Nations report condemned mass surveillance by the United States and other countries as violating multiple international treaties and conventions that guarantee core privacy rights.
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An exploit, EternalBlue , which is believed to have been created by the NSA, was used in the unprecedented worldwide WannaCry ransomware attack in May The exploit had been leaked online by a hacking group, The Shadow Brokers , nearly a month prior to the attack. A number of experts have pointed the finger at the NSA's non-disclosure of the underlying vulnerability, and their loss of control over the EternalBlue attack tool that exploited it. Edward Snowden said that if the NSA had " privately disclosed the flaw used to attack hospitals when they found it, not when they lost it, [the attack] might not have happened".
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Meade, MD, in four national Cryptologic Centers, and at sites throughout the world. Retrieved July 22, Its budget has roughly doubled. Then NSA wants you. Retrieved July 1, Data Surveillance with Global Implications". Retrieved August 29, Spending on Intelligence Agencies".
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NSA Relationship: What It Is and What You Should Know
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Its needs are projected to grow by 10 to 15 megawatt-hours by next fall. Retrieved February 26, Retrieved October 3, Archived from the original PDF on January 25, Retrieved June 13, Retrieved June 30, Federation of American Scientists. Retrieved January 6, The Salt Lake Tribune. Twenty dollars, dollars of drugs, inch rims.
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